Induction Heat Treating Process Analysis Essay

This paper aims at introducing new approaches for designing and optimising induction heat treatment processes. Although the final objectives of induction heating processes may deal with some specific mechanical or metallurgical properties for manufactured parts, we shall primarily focus here on achieving an accurate control of temperature distribution and evolution in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). This objective can be formalised as a classical optimisation problem: we seek to minimise a cost function which measures the difference between computed and goal temperatures – along with some constraints on process parameters. We deal here with both zero-order algorithms – using a method based on Efficient Global Optimization algorithm which is an optimisation procedure assisted by a meta model – as well as first-order algorithms. These algorithms have been coupled with 2-D and 3-D finite element models developed in our laboratory; this model is based on a coupling procedure between Maxwell equations and heat transfer models, and has been extended to mechanical and metallurgical computations.

Induction Heating

Induction heating has been used for various purposes from production technology such as quenching and shrink fitting through to the design of home appliances as in Induction cooking system.
Induction heating is the technology based on the eddy current, and it becomes a key issue for design to control the eddy current accurately.
However, since the eddy current depends on factors such as geometry, material characteristics, frequency, and temperature, its behavior is complicated.
Such complicity makes it difficult to appropriately control the quantity and location of eddy current.
JMAG correctly reproduces and visualizes the induction-heating phenomenon that changes intricately, and realizes the optimal design for various purposes using induction heating.

Evaluation items

Temperature distribution, heat generation density distribution, eddy current distribution within the work piece, current density distribution inside of wires, magnetic flux density, flux line, heating efficiency, input power, heat source, electromagnetic force

Case Studies / Functions

Induction hardening of a crankshaft

High-frequency induction hardening rapidly heats up parts contacting with a piston as a crankshaft rotates. Examines the hardened area based on the temperature distribution results obtained.

JMAG function :Rotational motion

Validates uniform quenching of parts contacting with a piston in an analysis, rotating induction heating needs to be taken into account.

JMAG function : Skin mesh function

Optimizes local heating, it requires accurate management of the eddy currents concentrating near the surface of the work piece. Our skin mesh function generates mesh and accurately predicts eddy current distribution, which is vital to simulate the high-frequency quenching process.

Optimal design of edge heater

When designing an edge heater, design parameters such as coil geometry, current conditions and feeding speed are vital issues.
An edge heating analysis simulates the induction heating process of a long steel sheet being conveyed taking account for such parameters.

JMAG function : Translation motion

Simulates the process of the scanning heat treatment for steel sheets.

JMAG function : Material modeling

Supports detailed modeling taking into account temperature changes such as magnetic and electric properties, and specific heat caused by the quenching process.

Induction hardening of a gear

As a precision component, a gear requires an accurate evaluation of dimensional tolerance due to thermal deformation resulting from induction hardening.

JMAG function : Coupled thermal and magnetic field analysis

Covers work piece temperatures beyond the Curie point in high-frequency induction hardening. A two-way coupled analysis of thermal and magnetic field accounting for temperature variations in physical values is indispensable.

JMAG function : Multiple frequencies for power supply

Enables to heat both the gear tip of the wheel and the gear base by controlling the power supply frequency.

Loss distribution of steel sheet by resistance heating

Obtains the temperature distribution, joule loss distribution by running resistance heating analysis using the electric resistance of the steel sheet.

JMAG function : Joule loss analysis

Obtains the joule loss distribution by solving the electromagnetic phenomena and heat transfer phenomena simultaneously.

Uniform heating for induction cooking system

Estimation of the uniformity of temperature distribution on the pot bottom can be led from the loss distribution Confirms if no flux leakage is causing malfunctioning of electric devices surrounding the system by checking to the 3D flux lines.

JMAG function : Circuit component

Enables direct input of power when actual current and voltage are unknown.

JMAG function : Leakage flux calculation in the air ambient

Calculates with high-accuracy the leakage flux distribution on a specified point in the air by integration method.


974Akira Kawanishi: "Electromagnetic and heat transfer analysis of HFW steel pipe", JMAG Users conference 2014, 2014
973Ayaka Nakata: "Computer simulation of high-frequency induction heating using a coupling of JMAG, FLUENT and ANSYS.", JMAG Users conference 2014, 2014
972Masaya Fukuda: "Applied cases to production technology development using magnetic field - thermal coupling analysis", JMAG Users conference 2014, 2014
-JMAG Newsletter, "Issue 4 Applications for Induction Heating Phenomena"
AN-183Application Catalog, "183 - Agitation Force Analysis of an Induction Furnace"
AN-047Application Catalog, "47 - High-Frequency Induction Heating Analysis of a Crankshaft"
AN-045Application Catalog, "45 - High-Frequency Induction Heating Analysis of an IH Cooking Heater"
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