In 1863 the United States was far from united. The country was two years into the Civil War, and the casualties were mounting. With fewer men enlisting and more men deserting duty, the need for soldiers was steadily increasing. The government turned to mandatory military service as a means of boosting their falling numbers and failing morale. On March 3, 1863 President Lincoln signed The Enrollment Act, which required all male citizens between the ages of twenty and forty-five to enroll for possible military service. Across the country, the act was immediately unpopular and sparked many demonstrations in protest of the new law. None of these demonstrations compared to the violent response in New York City. Demonstrations in New York City came to a head on July 13, 1863 when the United States put into effect its first effort at enforcing conscription. The government created a Federal Draft Bureau and assigned a Provost Marshal to the task of draft enforcement.The draft was conducted by random lottery, while police and military stood by to ensure those picked followed through on their civic duty.
However, not all men submitted quietly to this request. Although riots broke out in many major cities in the north, the riots in New York City were arguably the most violent and the most notable, resulting in the burning of buildings and lynching. The New York Riots of 1863 lasted over four days, and by some accounts left over a thousand killed or injured, and left over a million dollars in property damage.
New York City was a center for both Abolitionist and Anti-abolitionist activity. The city also found itself in a unique position at the time of the riots. Because of its strong commercial ties to the South, the city harbored many Confederate sympathizers. Aside from those with commercial interests, there were other groups unhappy with the effects of the war. Wartime inflation hit the immigrant and working class communities hard and began to cause tensions over fears that total emancipation would result in less jobs for them. The largely Irish immigrant community felt their jobs and wages were at risk and they feared that they would be lost when they were drafted since African Americans were not conscripted. This panic only furthered the already growing tensions between the two communities.
In addition to this, the Conscription Act had a clause that allowed wealthy men to pay their way out of being drafted for $300. It was supposed to be aimed at giving men a 'fair chance' to buy out of the draft, but resulted in further heightening tensions between the immigrant and working class communities and the wealthy. Another policy allowed someone to pay for a substitute to take their place. As a result of these draft policies, a man who looked wealthy could be an expected target of attack. According to "The New York Draft Riots of 1863: An Irish Civil War?" by Tobey Joyce the mobs would shout things such as "Down with the rich!" or there is a $300 man!"before they would attack.
These mounting tensions exploded on July 13, 1863 at a New York City draft office. The riot began at the Provost Marshall's office on Third Avenue, where the draft lottery was being held. First the crowd burned the office to the ground. Then they beat any police who attempted to stop their rampage and cut telegraph lines. They set fire to many nearby buildings, including the Colored Orphan Asylum, and looted the houses of the wealthy. These riots were not merely an outburst by men who did not want to go to war. It was clear the rioters, who were mainly white male Irish immigrants, targeted the wealthy and African Americans because they resented them for their ability to pay their way out of, or avoid the draft entirely. By mid day on July 13 the police had completely lost control of the crowd, which was now reaching numbers in the thousands.. According to Sanford, matters were made worse by the sympathies of the firefighters, who refused to put out the mob's fires.. Some speculate that the firefighters acted this way largely because they resented not being exempt from the draft in return for their services.. The city found itself at a near standstill. With the exception of the rioters, the normally busy town was deserted.In a first hand account, John Torrey explains that in his commute home to protect his servants he could not go near third of sixth avenue because all traffic had stopped and fourth avenue was filled with rioters Torrey noted that it was strange that on Broadway there were so few people and shops were closed.
Despite the fact that the draft had been suspended on June 14 or 15 in New York, things did not quiet down. In fact, the mobs grew more violent and looters and delinquents joined the angry group.On day three the military finally arrived to begin regaining order, but it was not until day four of the riot that things calmed down. Even with military presence the riots remained violent. Mobs injured many militia men, and in return the military had to open fire, killing rioters.
Although the draft sparked the riot, it quickly became a race issue. Because the rioters felt African Americas were responsible for the war, African Americans fell pray to mobs more than any other group. The mobs attacked innocent African Americas chasing them "as a hound would chase a fox."Abolitionists were also subject to ridicule and attack. One example of this was the burning of the residence of Horace Greeley, a well known Abolitionist along with the attempt to destroy the offices of his Republican newspaper, The New York Tribune.
The mobs felt that the Civil War was a fight against slavery, and if slavery were to end then the black population would move north and cause more job competition. So any African American or supporters to the end of slavery were direct enemies to the mob members' livelihood. Lynch mobs strung up any African American man they saw, resulting in 12 deaths. By the second day of the violence many blacks decided simply to go into hiding rather than risk going into public.
While the riots affected much of Manhattan, Greenwich Village and the surrounding area played a major role for several reasons. According to a map in Joyce's article there were instances of violence in the areas of Houston Street, Canal Street, Greenwich Ave, and Broadway (View New York Draft Riots Map). One well documented example of this violence is the story of William Jones. Jones, an African American man, was walking home in Greenwich Village when a mob attacked. They hung him and set his feet on fire. Greenwich was also important in the aftermath of the riots, because there was a military encampment in Washington Square. The military remained as a presence for the remainder of the summer in case of more violent outbreaks, but there was little violence after the initial four day riot. Today the riot is remembered as one of the most severe examples of civil unrest in United States history. More recently the events, especially their tie with the Irish immigrant community, has been immortalized in the movie Gangs of New York, so it can be forever remembered as the bloodiest time in New York History.
An excerpt from
In the Shadow of Slavery:
African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863
by Leslie M. Harris
In September of 1862, President Abraham Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation, which would take effect January 1, 1863, and free slaves in those states or regions still in rebellion against the Union. If any southern state returned to the Union between September and January, whites in that state theoretically would not lose ownership of their slaves. Despite its limits, free blacks, slaves, and abolitionists across the country hailed it as one of the most important actions on behalf of freedom in the nation's history. The Emancipation Proclamation brought formal recognition that the war was being fought, at least in part, on behalf of black freedom and equality.
The enactment of the Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863 capped two years of increasing support for emancipation in New York City. Although Republicans attempted to keep abolitionists from taking a leading role in New York's antislavery politics during the early years of the war, by 1862 abolitionist speakers drew huge audiences, black and white, in the city. Increasing support for the abolitionists and for emancipation led to anxiety among New York's white proslavery supporters of the Democratic Party, particularly the Irish. From the time of Lincoln's election in 1860, the Democratic Party had warned New York's Irish and German residents to prepare for the emancipation of slaves and the resultant labor competition when southern blacks would supposedly flee north. To these New Yorkers, the Emancipation Proclamation was confirmation of their worst fears. In March 1863, fuel was added to the fire in the form of a stricter federal draft law. All male citizens between twenty and thirty-five and all unmarried men between thirty-five and forty-five years of age were subject to military duty. The federal government entered all eligible men into a lottery. Those who could afford to hire a substitute or pay the government three hundred dollars might avoid enlistment. Blacks, who were not considered citizens, were exempt from the draft.
In the month preceding the July 1863 lottery, in a pattern similar to the 1834 anti-abolition riots, antiwar newspaper editors published inflammatory attacks on the draft law aimed at inciting the white working class. They criticized the federal government's intrusion into local affairs on behalf of the "nigger war." Democratic Party leaders raised the specter of a New York deluged with southern blacks in the aftermath of the Emancipation Proclamation. White workers compared their value unfavorably to that of southern slaves, stating that "[we] are sold for $300 [the price of exemption from war service] whilst they pay $1000 for negroes." In the midst of war-time economic distress, they believed that their political leverage and economic status was rapidly declining as blacks appeared to be gaining power. On Saturday, July 11, 1863, the first lottery of the conscription law was held. For twenty-four hours the city remained quiet. On Monday, July 13, 1863, between 6 and 7 A.M., the five days of mayhem and bloodshed that would be known as the Civil War Draft Riots began.
The rioters' targets initially included only military and governmental buildings, symbols of the unfairness of the draft. Mobs attacked only those individuals who interfered with their actions. But by afternoon of the first day, some of the rioters had turned to attacks on black people, and on things symbolic of black political, economic, and social power. Rioters attacked a black fruit vendor and a nine-year-old boy at the corner of Broadway and Chambers Street before moving to the Colored Orphan Asylum on Fifth Avenue between Forty-Third and Forty-Fourth Streets. By the spring of 1863, the managers had built a home large enough to house over two hundred children. Financially stable and well-stocked with food, clothing, and other provisions, the four-story orphanage at its location on Fifth Avenue and Forty-Second Street was an imposing symbol of white charity toward blacks and black upward mobility. At 4 P.M. on July 13, "the children numbering 233, were quietly seated in their school rooms, playing in the nursery, or reclining on a sick bed in the Hospital when an infuriated mob, consisting of several thousand men, women and children, armed with clubs, brick bats etc. advanced upon the Institution." The crowd took as much of the bedding, clothing, food, and other transportable articles as they could and set fire to the building. John Decker, chief engineer of the fire department, was on hand, but firefighters were unable to save the building. The destruction took twenty minutes.
In the meantime, the superintendent and matron of the asylum assembled the children and led them out toForty-Fourth Street. Miraculously, the mob refrained from assaulting the children. But when an Irish observer of the scene called out, "If there is a man among you, with a heart within him come and help these poor children," the mob "laid hold of him, and appeared ready to tear him to pieces." The children made their way to the Thirty-Fifth Street Police Station, where they remained for three days and nights before moving to the almshouse on Blackwell's Islandironically, the very place from which the orphanage's founders had hoped to keep black children when they built the asylum almost thirty years earlier.
Rioters tortured black men, women, and children. © Collection of the New-York Historical Society
Rioters subjected black men to the most brutal violence: torture, hanging, and burning. © Collection of the New-York Historical Society
With these actions white workers enacted their desires to eradicate the working-class black male presence from the city. The Longshoreman's Association, a white labor union, patrolled the piers during the riots, insisting that "the colored people must and shall be driven to other parts of industry." But "other parts of industry," such as cartmen and hack drivers, not to mention skilled artisans, also sought to exclude black workers. The riots gave all these workers license to physically remove blacks not only from worksites, but also from neighborhoods and leisure spaces. The rioters' actions also indicate the degree to which the sensational journalists and reformers of the 1840s and 1850s had achieved their goals of convincing whites, and particularly the Irish, that interracial socializing and marriage were evil and degrading practices. The riots unequivocally divided white workers from blacks. The act of rioting may itself have released guilt and shame over former interracial pleasures. Finally, and most simply, white workers asserted their superiority over blacks through the riots. The Civil War and the rise of the Republican Party and Lincoln to power indicated to New York's largely Democratic white workers a reversal of power in the nation; black labor competition indicated a reversal of fortunes in New York City itself. White workers sought to remedy their upside-down world through mob violence.
Ironically, the most well known center of black and interracial social life, the Five Points, was relatively quiet during the riots. Mobs neither attacked the brothels there nor killed black people within its borders. There were also instances of interracial cooperation. When a mob threatened black drugstore owner Philip White in his store at the corner of Gold and Frankfurt Street, his Irish neighbors drove the mob away, for he had often extended them credit. And when rioters invaded Hart's Alley and became trapped at its dead end, the black and white residents of the alley together leaned out of their windows and poured hot starch on them, driving them from the neighborhood. But such incidents were few compared to the widespread hatred of blacks expressed during and after the riots.
Card memorializing the Colored Orphan Asylum. © Collection of the New-York Historical Society
Those blacks who remained in the city found a somewhat chastened elite eager to help New York's black residents recover in the aftermath of the riots. The seven-month-old Union League Club (which had as one of its main tenets black uplift) and the Committee of Merchants for the Relief of Colored People spearheaded relief efforts to blacks, providing forty thousand dollars to almost twenty-five hundred riot victims and finding new jobs and homes for blacks. Just under a year later, Republican elites and New York City blacks publicly celebrated their renewed alliance. In December of 1863, the secretary of war gave the Union League Club permission to raise a black regiment. The Union League Club decided to march the regiment of over one thousand black men through the streets of New York to the Hudson River, where the ship that would take them south waited. On March 5, 1864, before a crowd of one hundred thousand black and white New Yorkers, the black regiment processed, making "a fine appearance in their blue uniform, white gloves and white leggings." They were preceded by the police superintendent, one hundred policemen, the Union League Club itself, "colored friends of the recruits," and a band. In a powerful display, the parade publicly linked blacks with the leaders of the new order being ushered in by the Civil War.
But the event could not completely erase the racial concerns that had been part of the draft riots, if indeed its organizers sought to. One account said of the soldiers, "a majority of them are black; indeed there are but few mulattoes among them," an attempt to downplay the obvious fears of racial mixing that white workers displayed before and during the riots, fears which many white elites may have shared. Observers also used the event to contrast the loyalty of blacks to the Union and their good behavior with the recent rioting as well as the general culture of white workers: "The 20th is emphatically an African regiment, and to its credit be it spoken, not one of its members disobeyed orders, no one broke ranks to greet enthusiastic friends, no one used intoxicating drinks to excess, no one manifested the least inclination to leave the service, and their marching was very creditable." The New York elite presented the black troops as symbols of the new orderly working class they desired: sober, solemn, obedient, and dedicated to the Union cause. But such simple symbolism obscured the complex divisions of status, class, outlook and aspiration that had been part of New York's free black community from its inception.
As the Union Army marched south, it brought with it black and white abolitionists (many affiliated with the American Missionary Assocition, others independent of organized efforts) who sought to reform southern blacks during and after the war. These largely middle-class activists carried ideas of racial uplift first promulgated in the northeast, from creating manual labor schools to moral reform to enhancing wage labor. They encountered newly free blacks eager for educational and economic betterment, but just as certainly shaping their own definitions of independence and equality. During the Civil War and Reconstruction years, black and white people from urban and rural areas in the north and south were challenged to create new opportunities for the freed people. But New York City had never unified to overcome the problems of racism and fully embrace black freedom; neither would the nation.