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Microorganisms or microbes are the minute living creatures in the universe which are invisible to the naked human eye, and are only visible with the help of a compound microscope. Microorganism is a broad term consisting of bacteria, microscopic fungi or moulds, protists and even viruses. Virus are even smaller than bacteria and are considered to be non-living beings, still their disease causative action includes them in the compass of microorganisms. Since ages, all these microbes were considered only to be harmful to human and animal life in particular and to the overall environment in general. But research in last few decades has proved that these microbes are actually helpful in maintaining the ecological balance in the environment by their important role in breaking down the dead organic matter to their basic constituents, thus returning it to earth’s crust for possible recycling. This paper discusses the types of microorganisms and the damaging as well as the helpful role played by their different classes.